38th Parallel—The demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea
3rd Reich—The Nazi party’s goal, a re-establishment of the German Empire
95 Thesis—Discussion points posted by Martin Luther that began the Protestant Reformation.
African National Congress (ANC)—The self-appointed representative body for Black South Africans that worked for the end of the apartheid policies.
Age of Imperialism—Time during the 19th and early 20th centuries when European countries conquered all of Africa
Agrarian—A society that is based on farming
al-Qaeda—The terrorist group organized by Osama Bin Laden after the Afghan-Soviet War
Apartheid—The government policies of South Africa (1930's-1991) that gave people of European descent special privileges after S. Africa gained its independence
Appeasement—Giving in to a hostile nation’s demands or actions to avoid war
Arms Race—The devotion of economic resources to developing superior weapons program by two or more countries
Artillery—Long-range weapons, normally shot from cannon-like weapons
Assassination—The murder of a political figure because of their beliefs, policies, or leadership of a movement, group, or organization.
Bastille—A French prison for political prisoners (people who spoke out against the government)
Berlin Airlift—The supply of West Berlin by aircraft during the Berlin Blockade
Black Death—The Bubonic Plague which impacted Europe in the 14th century and killed 1/3 of the population.
Blitzkrieg—The Nazi military tactic of using tanks and rapid assaults to overwhelm the enemy
Bolshevik—Russian political party that stood for communism in Russia beginning in the early 1900’s
Boston Tea Party—Boston colonists demonstration against King George and the tax on tea
Boycott—Refusing to participate or purchase goods or services to put pressure on a group, government, or business
Capital—Assets (money, property, etc.) which can be invested to earn money or start a business
Capitalism—An economic system where individuals control the means of production
Caste System—A system of social structuring common in South-East Asia where your parents’ social class determines your social class
Casualty—A person who is negatively impacted by a war (killed, injured, or captured)
Catholic—“Universal.” Normally in reference to the Roman Catholic Church, a Christian denomination. In historical literature, often referred to simply as “the Church”
Civil Disobedience—Refusing to follow government laws in order to pressure them to make changes in policy or laws
Civilian—people in a war-zone who are not involved with the military
Clergy—Pastors, priests, and other leaders of a church
Coalition—A group of organizations or countries working to achieve a common goal
Collectivization—The system where private farms and businesses owned by individuals are taken over by the government
Colonization—Spreading a country’s power by establishing settlements throughout the world.
Colony—A region that is under the political control of a foreign country
Columbian Exchange—The introduction of foreign goods into new markets during the Age of Exploration.
Communism—An economic system where the government controls the means of production
Conquistadors—“Conquerors,” Spanish soldiers seeking riches in the New World
Containment—United States policy of using military and economic pressure to stop the spread of Communism to other countries during the Cold War.
Deforestation—The practice of cutting down large forests to either engage in farming practices or access other natural resources Democracy—A government system where people vote for their leaders
Denomination—A group of Christian churches who all agree on basic beliefs and principles.
Depression—A prolonged period of economic hardship characterized by high unemployment and resource scarcity
Dictatorship—A government system where one person has absolute control
Diplomacy—International conflict resolution through discussions and alternatives to conventional warfare.
Direct Rule—French ruling style that directly ran all operations of their colonies
Divine Right—The idea that the king has authority from God
Eastern Bloc—The Eastern European countries controlled by the USSR during the Cold War
Empire—A nation and all of the territories and colonies that it controls
Epidemic—A widespread and out of control disease among a population of people.
Excommunication—Being kicked out of a religious group, normally forever.
Fascism—A dictator state where the leader relies on extreme nationalism to control the citizenry
Federal Government—A government that controls a group of independent states.
Five Year Plan—Stalin’s plans to industrialize the Soviet Union quickly
Fuhrer- “The Leader” A title Hitler took as dictator of Germany
Genocide—A government group specifically murdering of a group of people based on ethnic or cultural identity
Geocentric—Model of the universe with Earth at the center
Ghetto—Neighborhoods in Poland which were converted into isolation zones for Jews and other groups targeted by the Nazis.
Global Warming—The belief that man-made industrial practices have contributed to high and potentially dangerous global temperatures
Globalization--The process of increased connectedness of people all over the world.
Great Purge—Stalin’s campaign to eliminate all people opposed to his power during the 1930’s
Guillotine—A method of execution that became symbolic of the French Revolution
Gulag—Soviet prison camps
Heliocentric—Model of the universe with the Sun at the center
Heresy—Teaching ideas that conflict with religious beliefs.
Immigrant—A person who leaves their home country to live in a new country.
Imperialism—A nation’s desire to expand its power and control over other regions, attempting to build an empire
Indigenous—The people who lived somewhere first
Indirect Rule—British ruling style that allowed indigenous people to largely run their colonies
Indulgence-- money paid to the Catholic Church to pardon sins. No longer an accepted practice in any Christian church.
Industrialize—The process of using more machines and factories in the production of a nation’s goods
Inflation—The reduction in the value of money due to an increased supply of money
International—between two or more nations.
Iron Curtain—The symbolic and literal isolation of Eastern European nations under Soviet control from the rest of the world
Isolationism—A national policy of avoiding foreign wars and treaties whenever possible
Jihad—“holy war.” A reason many radical Islamic terrorist organizations give for engaging in violent acts
Jim Crowe Laws—The laws passed and enforced in the South that disadvantaged Black Americans while technically complying with the Constitution
KGB—The Soviet secret police, responsible for spying on Russian citizens to catch people working against the communist government.
Labor Union—A worker’s group formed to limit the power of the business or company owner
Manhattan Project—The covert project which developed the world’s first atomic weapons
Mass Production—Making large quantities of the same item.
Middle Passage—The time slaves spent on slave ships on the Atlantic Ocean
Militarism—The aggressive expansion of a nation’s military and willingness to use it to deal with international conflicts
Missionary—A person dedicated to spreading their religion to other groups of people.
Monarchy—A government system where a king or queen rules
Mutually Assured Destruction—The idea that use of nuclear weapons would result in the total destruction all countries possessing nuclear weapons in a resulting nuclear war.
National Assembly—French representative branch of government
Nationalism—A belief that one’s nation is better than all other countries and should spread its culture around the world.
Natural Rights—The idea that all people have basic human rights
Natural Selection--The scientific idea that more fit and stronger animals survive and pass on their genes to the next generation
Navigation—Using instruments and maps to arrive at a desired destination
Nazi—The nationalist extremist party which gained control of Germany in the 1930’s
New World—The American continents that were newly settled by Europeans in the 1500's.
No Man’s Land—The area between enemy trenches that was destroyed by constant artillery bombardment
Non-Aggression Pact—A mutual agreement to not take military action against other nations signing the agreement. Non-proliferation—An international agreement to cease production of nuclear weapons
Non-Violence—Protesting without the option of any kind of physical resistance or demonstration
Old World—The name given to the countries of Europe during the 1500's.
Paramilitary—A group with military command and structure which is not formally associated with any nation or country.
Philosophy--A system of thinking, or way of interpreting one’s world.
Pope—The leader of the Roman Catholic Church.
Proletariat—The working class
Propaganda—A media (print, video, audio) presentation designed to influence a target audience's emotional response, normally through manipulation and lies.
Protestant-- A general label of Christian groups who accept the Bible as the only authority in the Christian faith. Formed as a protest to the authority of the pope and Roman Catholic Church.
Pull Factor—Circumstances that make people want to move to another country because they believe it is better.
Push Factor—Circumstances that make people want to leave the country they are living in.
Red Terror—Brutal attacks on non-communists by the Bolsheviks
Refugee—A person who flees their country due to dangerous conditions created by an unstable government or environmental disasters.
Regime—Ruling group, often associated with a dictatorship
Regulation—Government rules that control and limit businesses.
Reign of Terror—Reference to the time when French revolutionaries beheaded thousands of people opposed to the revolution.
Reincarnation—The belief that a person’s soul is re-born into other bodies after death.
Renaissance—“Rebirth.” A time of renewed artistic, social, and scientific changes in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Reparations—money paid to restore something to its previous condition
Revolution—A sudden and often violent change in the way a country is governed or a powerful shift in the way a society operates.
Sanction—An economic penalty (boycott, fine, or trade restriction) placed on a country by other countries to pressure a country to change a policy or action
Scarcity—Having a very low supply of resources available
Scientific Method—Process of using scientific methods to discover truth about the world.
Segregation—Policies aimed at keeping a certain group separated from another group
Self-govern—The idea that colonies should be independent of their mother countries
Separation of Powers—Giving power to multiple branches of government to limit individual power
Social Contract—The idea that people trade some natural rights to the government in order to be protected
Social Darwinism--The explanation used by 19th century whites to explain the differences in Western and African cultures by claiming Africans were less evolved than white society, based on Darwin's theory of evolution.
Space Race—The devotion of economic resources by both the USSR and USA to develop space technology during the Cold War.
Spanish Inquisition—Spanish government body responsible for persecution of non-Christians during the 15th century.
Subsistence Farming—Growing just enough food for your family to survive on
Suffrage—The right to vote
Terrorism—an attempt to coerce or change public opinion by deliberate threat or harm, often targeting civilians.
Treaty of Versailles—The peace agreement that ended WW1 and blamed Germany for the war
Trench Warfare—Defensive WW1 strategy of digging large ditches to protect soldiers from attack
Triangular Trade—The ability of ship captains to use trade winds to stop at multiple ports on one trip to maximize profits
Tsar—A king of Russia
Tyranny—A government which allows little or no individual freedoms or rights.
Untouchables—The lowest caste of Indian citizen, so low that they technically don’t even have a class.
Urbanization—The process of people moving from rural areas to cities
USSR—The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (also known as Soviet Union). A Marxist-Leninist Communist union of multiple governments led by Russia.
Versailles—French king’s summer home known for its extravagant furnishings
Western Civilization--The cultural identity of European nations and those countries which they colonized based on Classical Greek and Roman culture, as well as Enlightenment ideas.
West—Short-hand expression for Western Civilization.
White Man’s Burden—The racist idea held by Europeans and Americans that they had to help uncivilized cultures become more like them.